In Before and After, Club member Joe Fowler gave a very interesting and helpful talk on how he approaches landscape and sports photography; and buildings and bison. He described how the camera struggles to record light and dark areas accurately and can be helped by the use of an ND (neutral density) grey graduated filter to reduce light from the sky. He showed landscapes of Scotland and talked us through the choices he made when taking the photographs and the Photoshop tools he used to improve them. As a well known cycle nut the next section covered how to get good images of bike racers including shots of the Tour of Britain as it climbed up the the Lammermuir Hills. Motor cycling and extreme sports were next with demonstrations of the use of relatively simple Photoshop techniques to combine elements of several images. The use of brush tools to dodge and burn ( lighten and darken ) areas was a key technique using very low opacity < 10% and a soft brush of varying diameters depending on the area under treatment. A loose Lasso tool with a feathered edge, to select areas for editing, avoids fiddly tedious cutting out of selections. The important point he made was that you learn to use Photoshop by experimenting and finding out why works for you.